Pythagoreanism Although Socrates influenced Plato directly as related in the dialogues, the influence of Pythagoras upon Plato also appears to have significant discussion in the philosophical literature. Pythagoras, or in a broader sense, the Pythagoreans, allegedly exercised an important influence on the work of Plato.
The arguments in the two essays overlap a great deal. In fact, The Open Society began as a chapter for Poverty.
Yet there is a difference in emphasis. The Open Society, a much longer and, according to Popper, a more important work, included in-depth discussion of historicism and the methods of the social sciences. But it also featured an inquiry into the psychological and historical origins of totalitarianism, which he located in the nexus of a set of appealing but, he argued, false ideas.
Open versus Closed Societies According to Popper, totalitarianism was not unique to the 20th century. But reactionary forces were unnerved by the instability and rapid social change that an open society had unleashed.
Socrates was indicted on charges of corrupting the youth and introducing new gods. In contrast, the individualism, freedom and personal responsibility that open societies necessarily engender leave many feeling isolated and anxious, but this anxiety, Popper said, must be born if we are to enjoy the greater benefits of living in an open society: Popper charged that Plato emerged as the philosophical champion of the closed society and in the process laid the groundwork for totalitarianism.
Betraying the open and critical temper of his mentor Socrates, in his Republic Plato devised an elaborate system that would arrest all political and social change and turn philosophy into an enforcer, rather than a challenger, of authority. It would also reverse the tide of individualism and egalitarianism that had emerged in democratic Athens, establishing a hierarchical system in which the freedom and rights of the individual would be sacrificed to the collective needs of society.
Spartan society focused almost exclusively on two goals: Toward these ends, the Spartan constitution sought to create a hive-like, martial society that always favored the needs of the collective over the individual and required a near total control over its citizenry.
This included a primitive eugenics, in which newborn infants deemed insufficiently vigorous were tossed into a pit of water. Spartan males judged healthy enough to merit life were separated from their families at a young age and provided an education consisting mainly of military training.
The training produced fearsome warriors who were indifferent to suffering, submissive to authority, and unwaveringly loyal to the city. Fighting for the city was an honor granted solely to the male citizenry, while the degrading toil of cultivating the land was the lot reserved to an enslaved tribe of fellow Greeks, the helots.
Rigid censorship was imposed on the citizenry, as well as laws that strictly limited contact with foreigners.
Under this system, Sparta became a dominant military power in ancient Greece, but, unsurprisingly, made no significant contributions to the arts and sciences. It was no coincidence, he said, that the Nazis and other modern-day totalitarians were also inspired by the Spartans.
These ideas were holism, essentialism, and historicism. Holism may be defined as the view that adequate understanding of certain kinds of entities requires understanding them as a whole.Plato and Aristotle on Knowledge The purpose of this paper is to explore Plato and Aristotle’s conceptions on knowledge, their understanding of the physical universe, and the suggestions that these beliefs conclusively made to the natural sciences - Plato and Aristotle on Knowledge introduction.
The Online Writing Lab (OWL) at Purdue University houses writing resources and instructional material, and we provide these as a free service of the Writing Lab at Purdue. Literary Theory "Literary theory" is the body of ideas and methods we use in the practical reading of literature.
By literary theory we refer not to the meaning of a work of literature but to the theories that reveal what literature can mean. All knowledge comes from our intellect's ability to interact with the Forms.
9. Introduction to Plato's Epistemology Epistemology, for Plato, is best thought of as the account of what knowledge is. explore Plato and Aristotle’s conceptions on knowledge, their understanding of the physical universe, and the suggestions that these beliefs conclusively made to the natural sciences.
referencing two distinct forms of knowledge: (1) essentialism, which relates to the belief that things have essences, and an explanation or definition, if it is accurate and true, will capture this essence in knowledge; and (2) instrumentalism, which relates to the belief that ideas are correct. Metaphysics - Problems in metaphysics: To give a comprehensive account of the main problems of metaphysics in the space of a few pages is clearly quite impossible. What follows is necessarily highly selective and to that extent misleading; it, nevertheless, attempts to offer an introduction to metaphysical thinking itself rather than reflection on the nature of metaphysics. Plato was Socratic in his belief that knowledge is virtue, in and of itself. This means that to know the good is to do the good, i.e., that knowing the right thing to do will lead to one automatically doing the right thing; this implied that virtue could be taught by teaching someone right from wrong, good from evil.
I shall do this by explaining Plato’s analysis of the nature of knowledge, and the role his proposed theory of forms .
The allegory illustrates Plato’s thesis that ideal Forms are the true, eternal reality, and that we must be led by philosophy to escape the cave of ignorance in which we dwell. HUANG YONG PING Caverne , by the Chinese artist Huang Yong Ping, uses Plato’s famous allegory to comment on contemporary politics.