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This website is archived for historical purposes and is no longer being maintained or updated. A common variant in the FTO gene is associated with body mass index and predisposes to childhood and adult obesity. The study comparedautosomal single-nucleotide polymorphisms SNPs in people with type 2 diabetes and population controls from the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium, a large research collaboration in the UK.
Please turn to the next page to see a copy of Figure 1 from this study. Please consult the preceding Figure to answer Questions 1 and 2.
What association is depicted in panel A of the Figure? What association is depicted in panel B? What is the most likely explanation for the less significant P-values in panel B? What do the combined findings in panels A and B suggest to you? What does the Y-axis in panel C represent?
How would you interpret the pattern in panel C? What can you infer from this finding? Since then, more than additional studies related to this association have been published, including 15 GWAS and 18 meta-analyses.
In addition to replicating the original finding, what further research questions could these studies have been designed to answer? List three types of questions that could be explored in genetic association studies of FTO and obesity.
Part II Questions Obesity is an important public health problem because it increases the risk of developing diabetes, heart disease, stroke, and other serious diseases.
Many published studies have analyzed FTO genotype directly for association with these and other conditions. In another approach, FTO genotype has been used as an instrumental variable to examine the association of obesity with health outcomes. Instrumental variables are used to evaluate causal relationships in epidemiology and other fields in which controlled experiments are not feasible.
The population distribution of genotype is thus anticipated to be independent of other factors—measured or unmeasured—that could confound epidemiologic analysis of risk factor-disease associations. Furthermore, because genotype remains unchanged throughout life, its use as an instrumental variable offers protection against false inference due to reverse causation.
The diagram below is from an article by Kivimaki et al.
Eur Heart J ; Please consult this diagram to answer Questions Which of the relationships in the diagram a, b, c, d must be established before designing the Mendelian randomization study? The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns study was a follow-up study, with repeated assessments in participant age range 3—18 years6—21 years9—24 yearsand 24—39 years.
Height and weight were measured at each visit and used to calculate body mass index. The study investigators assessed the relationship in path a using two different measures of phenotype:Case study: Changes in levels of obesity in the USA Many of us are aware that obesity is increasingly a problem, but it’s often unclear just how prevalent it has become.
The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) is a United States health survey that looks at behavioural risk factors. Case study: Changes in levels of obesity in the USA Many of us are aware that obesity is increasingly a problem, but it’s often unclear just how prevalent it has become.
The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) is a United States health survey that looks at behavioural risk factors. Denielle SaittaNCP Obesity I. Introduction: Patient Profile Patient 1 is a 43 year-old African American female. She was i. Obesity case study 1. What is the cause of obesity in the United States?
Jennifer Holder Kate Herman Christina Janushevich Lindy Paul. A common variant in the FTO gene is associated with body mass index and predisposes to childhood and adult obesity. Science ; The study compared , autosomal single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in people with type 2 diabetes and population controls from the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium, a large research collaboration in the UK.
Obesity Case Study Patient Profile and Background Information SL is a year-old white male who presented to a Weight Loss Center for evaluation in preparation for gastric bypass surgery. He has been obese for many years and tried unsuccessfully to lose weight through diet, exercise, and medical therapy with appetite suppressants.