A new, radical form of skepticism emerged in the last half of the 20th century: This view questioned whether there can be any rational, objective framework for discussing intellectual problems, or whether instead the intellectual frameworks that people use are inherently determined by… Postmodernism and modern philosophy Postmodernism as a philosophical movement is largely a reaction against the philosophical assumptions and values of the modern period of Western specifically European history—i. Indeed, many of the doctrines characteristically associated with postmodernism can fairly be described as the straightforward denial of general philosophical viewpoints that were taken for granted during the 18th-century Enlightenmentthough they were not unique to that period.
A new, radical form of skepticism emerged in the last half of the 20th century: This view questioned whether there can be any rational, objective framework for discussing intellectual problems, or whether instead the intellectual frameworks that people use are inherently determined by… Postmodernism and modern philosophy Postmodernism is largely a reaction against the intellectual assumptions and values of the modern period in the history of Western philosophy roughly, the 17th through the 19th century.
Indeed, many of the doctrines characteristically associated with postmodernism can fairly be described as the straightforward denial of general philosophical viewpoints that were taken for granted during the 18th-century Enlightenmentthough they were not The concept of postmodernism to that period.
The most important of these viewpoints are the following. There is an objective natural reality, a reality whose existence and properties are logically independent of human beings—of their minds, their societies, their social practices, or their investigative techniques.
Postmodernists dismiss this idea as a kind of naive realism. Such reality as there is, according to postmodernists, is a conceptual construct, an artifact of scientific practice and language.
This point also applies to the investigation of past events by historians and to the description of social institutions, structures, or practices by social scientists.
The descriptive and explanatory statements of scientists and historians can, in principle, be objectively true or false. The postmodern denial of this viewpoint—which follows from the rejection of an objective natural reality—is sometimes expressed by saying that there is no such thing as Truth.
Through the use of reason and logicand with the more specialized tools provided by science and technologyhuman beings are likely to change themselves and their societies for the better. It is reasonable to expect that future societies will be more humane, more just, more enlightenedand more prosperous than they are now.
Postmodernists deny this Enlightenment faith in science and technology as instruments of human progress.
Indeed, many postmodernists hold that the misguided or unguided pursuit of scientific and technological knowledge led to the development of technologies for killing on a massive scale in World War II. Some go so far as to say that science and technology—and even reason and logic—are inherently destructive and oppressive, because they have been used by evil people, especially during the 20th century, to destroy and oppress others.
Reason and logic are universally valid—i. For postmodernists, reason and logic too are merely conceptual constructs and are therefore valid only within the established intellectual traditions in which they are used. There is such a thing as human nature; it consists of faculties, aptitudes, or dispositions that are in some sense present in human beings at birth rather than learned or instilled through social forces.
Postmodernists insist that all, or nearly all, aspects of human psychology are completely socially determined. Language refers to and represents a reality outside itself. Inspired by the work of the Swiss linguist Ferdinand de Saussurepostmodernists claim that language is semantically self-contained, or self-referential: The postmodern view of language and discourse is due largely to the French philosopher and literary theorist Jacques Derrida —the originator and leading practitioner of deconstruction.
Human beings can acquire knowledge about natural reality, and this knowledge can be justified ultimately on the basis of evidence or principles that are, or can be, known immediately, intuitively, or otherwise with certainty. It is possible, at least in principle, to construct general theories that explain many aspects of the natural or social world within a given domain of knowledge—e.
Furthermore, it should be a goal of scientific and historical research to construct such theories, even if they are never perfectly attainable in practice. These theories are pernicious not merely because they are false but because they effectively impose conformity on other perspectives or discourses, thereby oppressing, marginalizingor silencing them.
Derrida himself equated the theoretical tendency toward totality with totalitarianism. Postmodernism and relativism As indicated in the preceding section, many of the characteristic doctrines of postmodernism constitute or imply some form of metaphysicalepistemologicalor ethical relativism.
It should be noted, however, that some postmodernists vehemently reject the relativist label. Postmodernists deny that there are aspects of reality that are objective; that there are statements about reality that are objectively true or false; that it is possible to have knowledge of such statements objective knowledge ; that it is possible for human beings to know some things with certainty; and that there are objective, or absolute, moral values.
Reality, knowledge, and value are constructed by discourses; hence they can vary with them. This means that the discourse of modern science, when considered apart from the evidential standards internal to it, has no greater purchase on the truth than do alternative perspectives, including for example astrology and witchcraft.
If postmodernists are correct that reality, knowledge, and value are relative to discourse, then the established discourses of the Enlightenment are no more necessary or justified than alternative discourses. But this raises the question of how they came to be established in the first place.
If it is never possible to evaluate a discourse according to whether it leads to objective Truth, how did the established discourses become part of the prevailing worldview of the modern era? Why were these discourses adopted or developed, whereas others were not?
Part of the postmodern answer is that the prevailing discourses in any society reflect the interests and values, broadly speaking, of dominant or elite groups. Inspired by the historical research of the French philosopher Michel Foucaultsome postmodernists defend the comparatively nuanced view that what counts as knowledge in a given era is always influenced, in complex and subtle ways, by considerations of power.
There are others, however, who are willing to go even further than Marx. The French philosopher and literary theorist Luce Irigarayfor example, has argued that the science of solid mechanics is better developed than the science of fluid mechanics because the male-dominated institution of physics associates solidity and fluidity with the male and female sex organs, respectively.
Thus postmodernists regard their theoretical position as uniquely inclusive and democratic, because it allows them to recognize the unjust hegemony of Enlightenment discourses over the equally valid perspectives of nonelite groups.dominance of the human mind over the traditional opinions Postmodernism Concept (mythical, religious, ethical, philosophical, etc) and growth of Postmodernism views include reconceptualization of scientific thoughts, rationalism and criticism of philosophy and traditionally termed ‘modern’ elements, methods and styles and formation of the.
Thus postmodernism focused on the signification cultural separation, whereas postmodernism is a process based system of which the fundamental and constructive elements are on cultural Entidifferezierung.  Postmodernism has also been used interchangeably with the term post-structuralism out of which postmodernism grew; a proper understanding of postmodernism or doing justice to the postmodernist concept demands an understanding of the post-structuralist movement and the ideas of its advocates.
Post-structuralism resulted. The key ideas of postmodern social theory from the works of Lyotard, Baudrillard, Foucault, Derrida and Jameson.
These social theorists include most of the variants of postmodernism in their theories. Postmodernism: Postmodernism, in contemporary Western philosophy, a late 20th-century movement characterized by broad skepticism, subjectivism, or relativism; a general suspicion of reason; and an acute sensitivity to the role of ideology in asserting and maintaining political and economic power.
Postmodernism takes a lot of concepts from the modernism era. Both modernism and post modernism focus on Style, Social analysis, Cultural Context, Philosophy, Politics, Human experience, Machine aesthetics, and the constant transformation of the “New”.