Jupiter A look at how we could colonize Jupiter and its Moon. Fittingly long for our largest planet!
Early Christian Attitudes to Science The ancient Greeks were outstanding mathematicians, philosophers and scientists. One of them, Empedocles, showed that air is a material substance and not just a void, experimented with centrifugal force, knew about sex in plants, proposed a theory of evolution, speculated that light travels at a finite speed, and was aware that solar eclipses are caused by alignments of the Sun, Moon and Earth.
Knowledge of astronomy was advanced. Hipparchus accurately determined the distance between Earth and the Moon 1estimated the length of the lunar month to within a second, and discovered the precession of the equinoxes.
Some of the achievements of the ancient Greeks are astonishing. Heron of Alexandria invented an internal combustion engine. Thales of Miletus, who lived around six centuries before the birth of Jesus, was familiar with static electricity.
By Roman times elementary batteries had been invented, although no uses for them appear to have been exploited. Foundations of many modern sciences were laid by the Greeks from astronomy to botany, and even specialised fields of physics such as optics, hydrostatics, pneumatics, and mechanics.
Modern mathematics is full of references to pioneering Greek mathematicians: Euclidean planes, Diophantine equations, the theory of Pappus, and so on.
The outlook of Christians was fundamentally different from that of the ancient Greeks. According to Christians, God revealed himself through the Bible and the Church. As Tertullian explained, scientific research [inquisitio] became superfluous once the gospel of Jesus Christ was available: We have no need of curiosity after Jesus Christ, nor of research after the gospel.
When we believe, we desire to believe nothing more. For we believe that there is nothing else that we need to believe. De praescnptione haereticorum On the Rule of the Heretic The Church taught that it knew all there was to be known. Christian knowledge was comprehensive and unquestionable.
Rational investigation was therefore unnecessary. Existing learning was not merely superfluous, but positively harmful. Theologians were convinced that God had defined strict limits on the knowledge that human beings might acquire, and anything else was "sorcery".
When Saint Paul visited the great city of Ephesus many Christians burned their books or scrolls because they were considered to contain sorcery. This set the tone for Christian thought for centuries. In the fourth century Eusebius attacked scientific enquiry, dismissing it as "useless labour".
Augustine of Hippo who regarded scientific enquiry as a worse sin than lust, also said that "Hell was made for the inquisitive". To seek to discover more was a sin and therefore also a crime, the crime of curiositas 2.
For him, scientific curiosity "knowledge and learning" was as a more serious sin than lust: To this the sin [of lust] is added another form of temptation more manifoldly dangerous.
For besides that concupiscence of the flesh which consisteth in the delight of all senses and pleasures, wherein its slaves, who go far from Thee, waste and perish, the soul hath, through the same senses of the body, a certain vain and curious desire, veiled under the title of knowledge and learning, not of delighting in the flesh, but of making experiments through the flesh.
Church dogma thus over-rode all empiricle evidence into modern times. To be right in everything, we ought always to hold that the white which I see, is black, if the Hierarchical Church so decides it St. Christianity brought the Dark Ages to Europe, a period when scientific endeavour was abandoned and learning of all kinds was rooted out and destroyed.
With the exception of military technology, the Church was to oppose advances in virtually every scientific discipline for many hundreds of years. Philosophers were persecuted and their books burned.
Sep 22, · The inner planets are called Terrestrial planets and the outer planets are called Jovian planets. The inner planets are closer to the sun, have more density, they have less moons, there about the size of Earth, and they rotate slowly. Ceres and Pluto don’t seem to have much in common. Nestled in the asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter, Ceres is a tiny loner, while Pluto — in the Kuiper Belt at the edge of the solar system — is nearly three times as big and hosts a handful of moons. The distinction between small and rocky inner and large and gaseous outer planets just happens - as far as we know now - to be a somewhat coincidental characteristic of our solar system. In any other planetary system, around any other star, the distribution of planets will probably be quite different.
Such was the persecution that men of learning were driven to destroy their own libraries rather than risk a volume being seen by a Christian informer. Efforts were made to destroy evidence of Greek successes. We can never know how much was lost forever. Some Greek learning was preserved because Christian heretics, notably Nestorians, took it east with them when they fled the wrath of the orthodox Church.
There they translated surviving works into Syriac, Hebrew and Arabic.Yet the four inner planets have much in common. Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars are terrestrial or telluric planets.
The planets in our solar system have similar interiors composed of a core and a mantle. Terrestrial planets also have a crust or a solid outer shell. Jomard, Asa. "Similarities Between the Terrestrial & Jovian Planets. In later medieval thought the earth was a disk - flat and round - so it was theoretically possible to find the edge of the world and break through to the first heaven.
Jupiter is the largest planet in the Solar System, with a diameter of , kilometers, more than 11 times wider than the Earth.
Jupiter orbits the Sun once every 12 years. Jupiter orbits the Sun once every 12 years. There are four terrestrial planets: Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars. The "Inner Planets" orbit relatively close to the Sun. These planets are mostly composed of gases, such as hydrogen, and small amounts of rocky material (mostly at their cores).
Number symbolism, cultural associations—including religious, philosophic, and aesthetic—with various numbers.. Humanity has had a love-hate relationship with numbers from the earliest times.
Bones dating from perhaps 30, years ago show scratch marks that possibly represent the phases of the Moon. The ancient Babylonians observed the movements of the planets, recorded them as numbers.
Non-terrestrial planets. Not all planets are terrestrial. In our solar system, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune are gas giants, also known as jovian planets.
It's unclear what the dividing line is between a rocky planet and a terrestrial planet; some super-Earths may have a liquid surface, for example.